[MenTeach: Thanks to Shaun Johnson for providing this Bibliography from his dissertation. If you don’t see a specific citation, please send us that information so that we can add it. And thank you to Kevin G. Davison for the list at the end about Boys & Masculinities.]

National Education Association Male Teacher Fact Sheet 2003. Retrieved April 4, 2006, from

Employed persons by detailed occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity 2005. Retrieved April 15, 2005, from

Boys Can Cry: Men in Education Break Down Stereotypes. Retrieved November 1, 2007, from

Call Me MISTER: A Teacher Recruitment Program at Clemson University. Retrieved October 29, 2007, from

Troops to Teachers: Proud to Serve Again. Retrieved October 29, 2007, from

Army Demographics. Retrieved October 29, 2007, from
Army Demographics document in pdf format

Employed persons by detailed occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity 2007. (November 23, 2007). from

Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by sex of student and field of study: 2004-05. Retrieved November 23, 2007, from

Male Teachers’ Strategy: strategic plans for the attraction, recruitment and retention of male teachers in Queensland State Schools 2002-2005. (2002). In E. Queensland (Ed.) (pp. 5): Queensland Government.

The Careers of Public School Administrators: Policy Implications from an Analysis of State-Level Data. (2006). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.

(UK), N. U. o. T. (2002). Man Enough to Teach in Primary and Early Years. London: NUT Professional Development Program.

Acker, J. (1998). The Future of ‘Gender and Organizations’: Connections and Boundaries. Gender, Work, and Organization, 5(4), 195-206.

Acker, J. (2000). Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations. In M. S. Kimmel, and Aronson, Amy (Ed.), The Gendered Society Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Acker, S. (1988). Teachers, Gender, and Resistance. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 9(3), 307-322.

Albisetti, J. C. (1993). The feminization of teaching in the nineteenth century: a comparative perspective. History of Education, 22(3), 253-262.

Allan, J. (1994). Anomaly as Exemplar: The Meanings of Role-Modeling for Men Elementary Teachers (pp. 1-16): Tri-College Department of Education.

Allan, J. (1997). The Persistant Fewness of Men Elementary Teachers: Hypotheses from their Experiences, Annual Meeting of the Midwest Sociological Society. Des Moines, IA.

Allard, A. C. (2004). Speaking of gender: teachers’ metaphorical constructs of male and female students. Gender and Education, 16(3), 347-363.

Altenbaugh, R. J. (Ed.). (1992). The Teacher’s Voice: A Social History of Teaching in Twentieth-century America. Washington, D.C.: Falmer Press.

Anderson, K. J., and Accomando, Christina. (2002). ‘Real’ Boys? Manufacturing Masculnity and Erasing Privilege in Popular Books on Raising Boys. Feminism Psychology, 19, 491-516.

Angelides, S. (2007). Subjectivity under Erasure: Adolescent Sexuality, Gender, and Teacher-Student Sex. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 15(3), 347-360.

Apple, M. (1988). Teachers and Texts: A Political Economy of Class and Gender Relations in Education. New York: Routledge.

Apple, M. W. (1985). Teaching and “Women’s Work”: A Comparative Historical and Ideological Analysis. Journal of Education, 86(3), 455-473.

Arnot, M., and Whitty, Geoff. (1982). Review: From Reproduction to Transformation: Recent Radical Perspectives on the Curriculum from the USA. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 3(1), 93-103.

Arnot, M., and Dillabough, Jo-Anne. (1999). Feminist Politics and Democratic Values in Education. Curriculum Inquiry, 29(2), 159-189.

Arnot, M. (2000). Gender Relations and Schooling in the New Century: conflicts and challenges. Compare, 30(3), 293-302.

Arreman, I. E., and Weiner, Gaby. (2007). Gender, research and change in teacher education: a Swedish dimension. Gender & Education, 19(3), 317-337.

Ashcraft, C., and Sevier, Brian. (2006). Gender Will Find a way: exploring how male elementary teachers make sense of their experiences and responsibilities. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 7(2), 130-145.

Bacolod, M. (2007). Who teaches and where they choose to teach: College graduates of the 1990s. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 29(3), 155-168.

Baer, A. B. (1928). Men Teachers in the Public Schools of the United States: The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Bailey, L. (1996). The feminisation of a school? Women teahers in a boys’ school. Gender and Education, 8(2), 171-185.

Bardeen, C. W. (1908). Why Teaching Repels Men. Educational Review(April), 351-358.

Bastick, T. (2000). Why Teacher Trainees Choose the Teaching Profession: Comparing Trainees in Metropolitan and Developing Countries. International Review of Education, 46(3/4), 343-349.

Beltman, S., & Wosnitza, M. (2008). “You are getting too old, find a man and marry”: Social aspects of motivation to choose teacher education. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 8, 49-63.

Billig, M. (1987). Arguing and Thinking: A rhetorical approach to social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Blount, J. (2006). Fit to Teach: Same-sex Desire, Gender, and School Work in the Twentieth Century. New York: State University of New York Press.

Bly, R. (2004). Iron John: A Book About Men. Cambridge: Da Capo Press.

Boardman, A. E., Darling-Hammond, Linda, and Mullin, Stephen D. (1982). A Framework for the Analysis of Teacher’s Supply and Demand. Economics of Education REview, 2(2), 127-155.

Bock, G. a. J., Susan (Ed.). (1992). Beyond Equality and Difference: Citizenship, feminist politics and female subjectivity. New York: Routledge.

Bowden, P. (1997). Caring: Gender-sensitive Ethics. New York: Routledge.

Bradley, H. (1993). Across the Great Divide: The Entry of Men Into “Women’s Jobs”. In C. L. Williams (Ed.), Doing “Women’s Work:” Men in Nontraditional Occupations. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Bricheno, P., and Thornton, Mary. (2007). Role model, hero or champion? Children’s views concerning role models. Educational Research, 49(4), 383-396.

Brod, H. (1987). A Case for Men’s Studies. In M. S. Kimmel (Ed.), Changing Men: New Directions in Reserach on Men and Masculinity. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Brod, H. (Ed.). (1987). The Making of Masculinities: The New Men’s Studies. New York: Routledge.

Brod, H. (1987). The Case for Men’s Studies. In H. Brod (Ed.), The Making of Masculinities: The New Men’s Studies. New York: Routledge.

Brookhart, S. M. a. L., William E. (1996). Characteristics of male elementary teachers in the U.S.A., at teacher education program entry and exit. Teaching & Teacher Education, 12(2), 197-210.

Brophy, J. E., and Good, Thomas C. (1973). Feminization of American Elementary Schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 54, 564-566.

Budig, M. J. (2002). Male Advantage and the Gender Composition of Jobs: Who Rides the Glass Escalator? Social Problems, 49(2), 258-277.

Buechler, M., and Fulford, Nancy. (1992). Alternative Teacher Certification, NCREL Policy Briefs (Vol. 17, pp. 1-13).

Butler, J. (2004). Undoing Gender. New York: Routledge.

Carr, B. (2000). Same as It Never Was: Masculinity and Identification in Feminism. In N. Lesko (Ed.), Masculinities at School (pp. 323-343). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Carrigan, T., Connell, Bob, and Lee, John. (1987). Toward a New Sociology of Masculinity. In H. Brod (Ed.), The Making of Masculinities: The New Men’s Studies. New York: Routledge.

Carrington, B., and Tomlin, Richard. (2000). Towards a More Inclusive Profession: teacher recruitment and ethnicity. European Journal of Teacher Education, 23(2), 139-157.

Carrington, B. (2002). A Quintessentially Feminine Domain? Student Teachers’ Constructions of Priary Teaching as a Career. Educational Studies, 28(3), 287-303.

Carrington, B., and Skelton, Christine. (2003). Re-thinking ‘role models’: equal opportunities in teacher recuirtment in England and Wales. Journal of Education Policy, 18(3), 253-265.

Carrington, B., Tymms, Peter, and Merrell, Christine. (2005). Role models, school improvement and the ‘gender gap’ – Do men bring out the best in boys and women the best in girls?, EARLI 2005 Conference. University of Nicosia.

Carter, S. B. (1989). Incentives and Rewards to Teaching. In D. Warren (Ed.), American Teachers: Histories of a Profession at Wrok (pp. 49-62). New York: MacMillan.

Charlton, E., Mills, Martin, Martino, Wayne, and Beckett, Lori. (2007). Sacrificial girls: a case study of the impact of streaming and setting on gender reform. British Educational Research Journal, 33(4), 459-478.

Chmelynski, C. (2006). Getting More Blacks and Men Into Teaching. Educational Digest, 71(5), 40-42.

Chusmir, L. H. (1990). Men Who Make Nontraditional Career Choices. Journal of Counseling and Development, 69, 11-16.

Clifford, G. J. (1989). Man/Woman/Teacher: Gender, Family, and Career in American Educational History. In D. Warren (Ed.), American Teachers: Histories of a Profession at Work (pp. 293-343). New York: MacMillan.

Collinson, D., and Hearn, Jeff. (1996). ‘Men’ at ‘work’: multiple masculinities/multiple workplaces. In M. Mac An Ghaill (Ed.), Understanding Masculinities. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Connell, R. W. (1982). Class, Patriarchy, and Sartre’s Theory of Practice. Theory and Society, 11(3), 305-320.

Connell, R. W. (1985). Teacher’s Work. Winchester: Allen & Unwin.

Connell, R. W. (1988). Gender and Power: Society, the Person, and Sexual Politics. Stanford: Standord University Press.

Connell, R. W. (1989). Cool Guys, Swots and Wimps: The Interplay of Masculinity and Education. Oxford Review of Education, 15(3), 291-303.

Connell, R. W. (1993). Men and the Women’s Movement. Social Policy, 23(4), 72-78.

Connell, R. W. (1993). Schools and Social Justice. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Connell, R. W. (1996). Teaching the Boys: New Research on Masculinity, and Gender Strategies for Schools. Teachers College Record, 98(2), 206-235.

Connell, R. W. (2000). The Men and the Boys. Berkely: University of California Press.

Connell, R. W. (2002). Long and Winding Road: An Outsider’s View of U.S. Masculinity and Feminism. In J. K. Gardiner (Ed.), Masculinity Studies and Feminist Theory. New York,: Columbian University Press.

Connell, R. W. (2005). Gowing up masculine: rethinking the significance of adolscence in the making of masculinities. Irish Journal of Sociology, 41(2), 11-28.

Connell, R. W. (2005). Change among the Gatekeepers: Men, Masculinities, and Gender Equality in the Global Arena. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 30(3), 1801-1825.

Connell, R. W., and Crawford, June. (2005). Are We Postmodern Yet? The Cultral Politics of Australian Intellectual Workers. Australian Journal of Political Science, 40(1), 1-15.

Connelly, F. M., and Clandinin, D. Jean. (1990). Stories of Experience and Narrative Inquiry. Educational Researcher, 19(5), 2-14.

Cook, A. F. (2006). Perceptions and Beliefs Regarding Men in Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Retrieved April 29, 2010, from

Corbett, C., Hill, Catherine, and St. Rose, Andresse. (2008). Where the girls are: The facts about gender equity in education. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women.

Cornwall, A. a. L., Nancy (Ed.). (1994). Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies. New York: Routledge.

Cornwall, A. a. L., Nancy. (1994). Dislocating mascuinity: gender, power, and anthropology. In A. a. L. Cornwall, Nancy (Ed.), Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies. New York: Routledge.

Coulter, R. P. (1993). Exploring Men’s Experiences as Elementary School Teachers. Canadian Journal of Education, 18(4), 398-413.

Cunningham, B., and Watson, Lemuel W. (2002). Recruiting Male Teachers. Young Children, 57(6), 10-15.

Cushman, P. (2005). Let’s Hear if from the Males: Issues Facing Male Primary School Teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 227-240.

Cushman, P. (2005). It’s just not a real bloke’s job: male teachers in the primary school. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 33(3), 321-338.

Cushman, P. (2008). So what exactly do you want? What principals mean when they say ‘male role model’. Gender & Education, 20(2), 123-136.

Dalley-Trim, L. (2007). ‘The boys’ present… Hegemonic masculinity: a performance of multiple acts. Gender & Education, 19(2), 199-217.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Solving the Dilemmas of Teacher Supply, Demand, and Standards: How We Can Ensure a Competent, Caring, and Qualified Teacher for Every Child, National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. New York.

Davison, K.G. and Nelson, B.G. (2011). Men and Teaching: Good Intentions and Productive Tensions. Journal of Men’s Studies, 19(2), 91-96.

Davidson, C.N., Hatcher, Jessamyn (Ed.). (2002). No More Separate Spheres! Durham: Duke University Press.

Davies, B. (1997). Constructing and Deconstructing Masculinities through Critical Literacy. Gender & Education, 9(1), 9-30.

DeCorse, C. J., and Vogtle, Stephen P. (1997). In a Complex Voice: The Contradictions of Male Elementary Teachers’ Career Choice and Professional Identity. Journal of Teacher Education, 48, 37-46.

Dee, T. S. (2005). Teachers and the Gender Gaps in Student Achievement.Unpublished manuscript, Cambridge.

Delamont, S. (1999). Gender and the discourse of derision. Research Papers in Education, 14(1), 3-21.

Demetriou, D., Z. (2001). Connell’s Concept of Hegemonic Masculinity: A Critique. Theory and Society, 30(3), 337-361.

Di Marco, G. (2009). Social Justice and gender rights. Malden: UNESCO.

DiPiero, T. (2002). White Men Aren’t. Durham: Duke University Press.

Ditz, T. L. (2004). The New Men’s Hisotyr and the Peculiar Absence of Gendered Power: Some Remedies from Early American Gender History. Gender and History, 16(1), 1-35.

Dolton, P., and Van Der Klaauw, Wilbert. (1999). The Turnover of Teachers: A Competing Risks Explanation. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 81(3), 543-552.

Dolton, P., and AChung, Tsing-Ping. (2004). The Rate of Return on Teaching: How Does it Compare to Other Graduate Jobs? National Institute of Economic Review, 0(196), 89-103.

Donaldson, M. (1993). What is Hegemonic Masculinity? Theory and Society, 22(5), 643-657.

Driessen, G. (2007). The Feminization of Primary Education: Effects of Teachers’ Sex on Pupil Achievement, Attitudes and Behavior. Review of Education, 53, 183-203.

Drudy, S., Martin, Maeve, Woods, Mairide, and O’Flynn, John. (2005). Men in the Classroom: Gender imbalances in teaching. London: Routledge.

Dunn, W. N. (1981). Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.

Edley, N., and Wetherell, Margaret. (1996). Masculinity, power and identity. In M. Mac An Ghaill (Ed.), Understanding Masculinities. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Ehrenberg, R. G., Goldhaber, Daniel D., and Brewer, Dominic J. (1995). Do Teacher’s Race, Gender, and Ethnicity Matter? Evidence from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48(3), 547-561.

Elicker, J. (2002). More Men in Early Childhood Education? Why? Young Children, 57(6), 50-54.

Faludi, S. (1991). Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women. New York: Doubleday.

Faludi, S. (1999). Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man. New York: Perennial.

Farquhar, S. (1997). Are Male Teachers Really Necessary?, New Zealand Association for Research Education. Aukland.

Figlio, D. N. (2002). Can Public Schools Buy Better Teachers? Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 55(4), 686-699.

Finkelstein, B. (1989). Governing the Young: Teacher behavior in popular primary schools in 19th century United States. New York: The Falmer Press.

Fitzclarence, L. (2000). Learning and Teaching in Education’s Shadowland: Violence, Gender Relations, and Pedagogic Possibilities. The Review of Education/Pedagogy/Cultural Studies, 22(2), 147-173.

Foster, T., and Newman, Elizabeth. (2005). Just a knock back? Identity bruising on the route to becoming a male primary school teacher. Teachers and Teaching: thoery and practice, 11(4), 341-358.

Fox, J. (2004). How Men’s Movement Participants View Each Other. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 12(2), 103-118.

Francis, B., and Skelton, Christine. (2001). Men Teachers and the Construction of Heterosexual Masculinity in the Classroom. Sex Education, 1(1), 9-21.

Francis, B., and Skelton, Christine. (2005). Reassessing Gender and Achievement: Questioning Contemporary Key Debates. New York: Routledge.

Francis, B., Skelton, Christine, Carrington, Bruce, Hutchings, Merryn, and Read, Barbara. (2008). A prefect match? Pupils’ and teachers’ views of the impact of matching educators and learners by gender. Research Papers in Education, 23(1), 21-36.

Frank, B., and Martino, Wayne. (2006). The Tyranny of Surveillance: Male Teachers and the Policing of Masculinities in a Single Sex School. Gender and Education, 18(1), 17-33.

Franklin-Jackson, d., and Carter, Robert T. (2007). The Relationships Between Race-Related Stress, Racial Indentity, and Mental Health for Black Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 33(5), 5-26.

Freidus, H. (1990). The call of sirens? The influence of gender in the decision to choose teaching as a career change, American Educational Research Association. Boston, MA.

Gardiner, J. K. (Ed.). (2002). Masculinity Studies and Feminist Theory. New York: Columbia University Press.

Gaskell, J., and Willinsky, John (Ed.). (1995). Gender In/Forms Curriculum: From Enrichment to Transformation. New York: Teachers College Press.

Gaskell, J., and Mullen, A. (2006). Women in Teaching: Participation, Power and Possibility. In C. Skelton, Francis, B., and Smulyan, L. (Ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Education (pp. 453-468). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

Gilbert, P., and Gilbert, R. (2001). Masculinity, inequality, and post-school opportunities: disrupting oppositional politics about boys’ education. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 5(1), 1-13.

Gilbert. A., K., Alan, and Cregan, Christina. (2002). Gender and Wages: A Cohort Study of Primary School Teachers. Applied Economics, 34, 363-375.

Giroux, H. A. (2003). Public Pedagogy and the Politics of Resistance: Notes on a critical theory of educational struggle. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 35(1), 5-18.

Gitlin, A. (2001). Bounding Teacher Decision Making: The Threat of Intensification. Educational Policy, 15(2), 227-257.

Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York: Harper & Row.

Gold, D., and Reis, Myrna. (1982). Male Teacher Effects on Young Children: A Theoretical and Empirical Consideration. Sex Roles, 8(5), 493-513.

Goodman, J. (1987). Masculinity, Feminism, and the Male Elementary School Teacher: A Case Study of Preservice Teachers’ Perspectives. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 7(2), 30-55.

Goodman, J., and Kelly, Tom. (1988). Out of the Mainstream: Issues Confronting the Male Profeminist Elementary School Teacher. Interchange, 19(2), 1-14.

Goodman, J. (1992). Disourse of Imagery. The Educational Forum, 56(3), 269-289.

Gorard, S., Rees, Gareth, and Salisbury, Jane. (1999). Reappraising the Apparent Underachievement of Boys at School. Gender and Education, 11(4), 441-454.

Gosse, D., & Facchinetti, A. (2011). What’s in the male?. Education Today, the Magazine for Education Professionals, 11 (2), 26-30.

Grumet, M. (1988). Bitter Milk: Women and Teaching. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press.

Grumet, M. a. S., Lynda. (2000). Feminism and Curriculum: Getting our Act Together. Curriculum Studies, 32(2), 183-197.

Gurian, M., Henley, Patricia, and Trueman, Terry. (2001). Boys and Girls Learn Differently! San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gutmann, A. (1987). Democratic Education. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hansen, P., and Mulholland, Judith A. (2005). Caring and Elementary Teaching: The Concerns of Male Beginning Teachers. Journal of Teacher Education , 56, 119-131.

Hansot, E., and Tyack, David. (1988). Gender in American Public Schools: Thinking Institutionally. Signs, 13(4), 741-760.

Hansot, E. (1993). Historical and Contemporary Views of Gender and Education. In S. K. Bilken, and Pollard, Diane (Ed.), Gender and Education: Ninety-second Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (pp. 12-24). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Hanushek, E. A., Kain, John F., and Rivkin, Steven G. (2002). Why Public Schools Lose Teachers? The Journal of Human Resources, 39(2), 326-354.

Harris, K., and Barnes, Sally (2009) Male Teacher, Female Teacher: Exploring Children’s Perspectives of Teachers’ Roles in Kindergartens. Early Child Development and Care. (179)2, 167-181.

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Haywood, C., and Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin. (1996). Schooling masculinities. In M. Mac An Ghaill (Ed.), Understanding Masculinities. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Haywood, C., Popoviciu, Liviu, and Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin. (2005). Feminsation and schooling: re-masculinisation, gendered reflexivity and boyness. Irish Journal of Sociology, 14(2), 193-212.

Hearn, J. (1996). Is masculinity dead? A critique of the concept of masculinity/masculinities. In M. Mac An Ghaill (Ed.), Understanding Masculinities. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Hearn, J. (1998). Theorizing men and men’s theorizing: Varieties of discursive practices in men’s theorizing of men. Theory and Society, 27(781-816).

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Heward, C. (1996). Masculinities and families. In M. Mac An Ghaill (Ed.), Understanding Masculinities. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Hoff-Summers, C. (2000). The War Against Boys. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Honig, A. S. (2008). Supporting men as fathers, caregivers, and educators. Early Child Development and Care, 178(7), 665 – 687.

Howson, R. (2006). Challenging Hegemonic Masculinity. New York: Routledge.

Hubbard, L., and Datnow, Amanda. (2000). A Gendered Look at Educational Reform. Gender and Education, 12(1), 115-129.

Huber, L., Stroud, J., and Vollum, I. (2000). Encouraging Men to Enter the Field of Child Care: What Can Be Done? Early Child Development and Care, 165(1), 17 – 21.

Ingersoll, R. (2003). Who Controls Teachers’ Work: Power and Accountability in America’s Schools. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

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Jackson, C. (2003). Motives for ‘Laddishness’ at School: fear of failure and fear of the ‘feminine’. British Educational Research Journal, 29(4), 583-598.

Jacobs, J. A. (1993). Men in Female-Dominated Fields: Trends and Turnover. In C. L. Williams (Ed.), Doing “Women’s Work:” Men in Nontraditional Occupations. Newbury Park: SAGE Publications.

James, C. (2002). Achieving Desire: Narrative of a Black Male Teacher. Qualitative Studies in Education, 15(2), 171-186.

Jamison, J. (2000). Negotiating Otherness: a Male Early Childhood Educator’s Gender Positioning. International Journal of Early Years Education, 8(2), 129-139.

Jandt, F., and Hundle, Heather. (2007). Intercultural Dimensions of Communicating Masculinities. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15(2), 216-231.

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Johannesson, I. A. (2004). To Teach Boys and Girls: a pro-feminist perspective on the boys’ debate in Iceland. Educational Review, 56(1), 33-42.

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Johnston, J., McKeown, Eamonn, and McEwen, Alex. (1999). Choosing Primary Teaching as a Career: the perspectives of males and females in training. Journal of Education for Teaching, 25(1), 56-64.

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Kanter, R. M. (1977). Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic Books.

Kaufman, M. (1994). Men, Feminism, and Men’s Contradictory Experiences of Power. In H. Brod (Ed.), Theorizing Masculinities. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Keddie, A. (2006). Pedagogies and critical reflection: key understandings for transformative gender justice. Gender & Education, 18(1), 99-114.

Keddie, A. (2008). Teacher stories of collusion and transformation: a feminist pedagogical framework and meta-language for cultural gender justice. Journal of Education Policy, 23(4), 343-357.

Keddie, A. (2008). Playing the game: critical literacy, gender justice, and issues of masculinity. Gender & Education, 20(6), 571-583.

Keddie, A. (2008). Gender Justice and the English Citizenship Curriculum: A Consideration of Post-September 11 National Imperatives and Issues of “Britishness”. International Journal of Educational Reform, 17(1), 3-18.

Keddie, A., and Mills, Martin. (2009). Disrupting masculinised spaces: teachers working for gender justice. Research Papers in Education, 24(1), 29-43.

Keroes, J. (1999). Tales Out of School: Gender, Longing, and the Teacher in Fiction and Film. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Kidder, T. (1989). Among Schoolchildren. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Kimmel, M., and Traver, Amy. (2005). Mentoring masculinities: race and class in the (re-)construction of gender in the USA and the UK. Irish Journal of Sociology, 14(2), 213-230.

Kimmel, M. S. (1987). Teaching a Course on Men: Masculinist Reaction of “Gentlemen’s Auxiliary”? In M. S. Kimmel (Ed.), Changing Men: New Directions in Reserach on Men and Masculinity. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Kimmel, M. S. (1996). Manhood in America: A Cultural History (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kimmel, M. S. (2006). A War Against Boys? Dissent(Fall), 1-6.

King, J. R. (1998). Uncommon Caring: Learning from Men Who Teach Young Children. New York: Teachers College Press.

King, K., and Gurian, Michael. (2006). Teaching to the Minds of Boys. Educational Leadership, Sept., 56-61.

King, S. H. (1993). Why did we choose teaching careers and what will enable us to stay? Insights from one cohort of the African American teaching pool. The Journal of Negro Education, 62(4), 475-492.

Krecic, M. J., & Grmek, M.I. (2005). The reasons students choose teaching professions. Educational Studies, 31(3), 265-274.

Kreig, J. M. (2005). Teacher Quality and Attrition. Economics of Education Review, 25(1), 13-27.

Krugman, P. (2007). The Conscience of a Liberal. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.

Kumashiro, K. K. (2008). The Seduction of Common Sense: How the Right has Framed the Debate on America’s Schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

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Martino, W. J. (2008). Male Teachers as Role Models: Addressing Issues of Masculinity, Pedagogy and the Re-Masculinization of Schooling. Curriculum Inquiry, 38(2), 189-223.

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Mills, M., Martino, Wayne, and Lingard, Bob. (2004). Attracting, recruiting, and retaining male teachers: policy issues in the male teacher debate. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25(3), 355-369.

Mills, M. (2004). Male Teachers, Homophobia, Misogyny, and Teacher Education. Teaching Education, 15(1), 27-39.

Mills, M., and Keddie, Amanda. (2007). Teaching boys and gender justice. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 11(3), 335-354.

Mills, M., and Lingard, Bob. (2007). Pedagogies making a difference: of social justice and inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 11(3), 233-244.

Mills, M., Martino, Wayne, and Lingard, Bob. (2007). Getting boys’ education ‘right’: the Australian Government’s Parliamentary Inquiry Report as an exemplary instance of recuperative masculinity politics. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 28(1), 5-21.

Mills, M., Haase, Malcom, and Charlton, Emma. (2008). Being the ‘right’ kind of male teacher: the disciplining of John. Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 16(1), 71-84.

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Montecinos, C., and Nielson, Lynn. (2004). Male Elementary Pre-Service Taechers’ Gendering of Teaching. Multicultural Perspectives, 6(2), 3-9.

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NAESP. (2006). Characteristics of Elementary School Principals. Principal-The Veteran Principal, 86(1), 42-47.

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Nelson, D. D. (2002). Representative/Democracy: Presidents, Democratic Management, and Unfinished Business of Male Sentimentalism. In C. N. Davidson, and Hatcher, Jessamyn (Ed.), No More Separate Spheres! Durham: Duke University Press.

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Pleck, J. A. (1987). American Fathering in Historical Perspective. In M. S. Kimmel (Ed.), Changing Men: New Directions in Reserach on Men and Masculinity. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Pleck, J. H. (1981). The Myth of Masculinity. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

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Richardson, P. W., & Watt, H.M.G. (2006). Who chooses teaching and why? Profiling characteristics and motivations across three Australian universities. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 34(1), 27-56.

Riddell, S., and Tett, Lyn. (2006). Gender and Teaching: Where have All the Men Gone? Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.

Robinson, S. (2002). Pedagogy of the Opaque: Teaching Masculinity Studies. In J. K. Gardiner (Ed.), Masculinity Studies and Feminist Theory. New York: Columbia University Press.

Rofes, E. (2000). Bound and Gagged: Sexual Silences, Gender Conformity, and the Gay Male Teacher. Sexualities, 3(4), 439-462.

Roulston, K., and Mills, Martin. (2000). Male Teachers in Feminized Teaching Areas: Marching to the Beat of the Men’s Movement Drums? Oxford Reveiw of Education, 26(2), 221-237.

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Sargent, P. (2000). Real Men or Real Teachers? Men and Masculinities, 2(4), 410-433.

Sargent, P. (2001). Real Men or Real Teachers: Contradictions in the Lives of Men Elementary School Teachers. Harriman: Men’s Studies Press.

Sargent, P. (2002). Under the Glass: Conversations with Men in Early Childhood Education. Young Children, 57(6), 22-30.

Sargent, P. (2005). The Gendering of Men in Early Childhood Education. Sex Roles, 52(3/4), 251-259.

Sax, L. (2008). Boys Adrift: The Five Factors Driving the Growing Epidemic of Unmotivated Boys and Underachieveing Young Men. New York: Basic Books.

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Segal, L. (1990). Slow Motion: Changing masculinities changing men. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Seidler, V. J. (1991). Recreating Sexual politics: Men, feminism and politics. New York: Routledge.

Seidler, V. J. (2006). Transforming Masculinities: Men, culture, bodies, power, sex and love. New York: Routledge.

Sheppard, Harold L. (1973). Some problems of men in child care center work. Child Welfare, 102(3): 167-171, March 1973.

Sikes, P. J. (1991). Nature took its course? Student Teachers and Gender Awareness. Gender and Education, 3(2), 145-163.

Silverman, K. (1992). Male Subjectivity at the Margins. New York: Routledge.

Skelton, C. (1991). A study of the career perspectives of male teachers of young children Gender and Education, 3(3), 279-291.

Skelton, C. (1998). Femism and Research into Masculinities and Schooling. Gender and Education, 10(2), 217-227.

Skelton, C. (2003). Male Primary Teachers and Perceptions of Masculinity. Educational Review, 55(2), 195-209.

Skelton, C., Francis, Becky, and Smulyan, Lisa (Ed.). (2006). The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Education. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

Smedley, S., and Pepperell, Sandy. (2000). No Man’s Land: caring and male student primary teachers. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 6(3), 259-277.

Smedley, S. (2006). Listening to men student primary school teachers: some thoughts on pedagogy. Changing English, 13(1), 125-135.

Smedley, S. (2007). Learning to be a primary school teacher: reading one man’s story. Gender and Education, 19(3), 369-385.

Smith, D. F. (1973). Yes, American Schools are Feminized. Phi Delta Kappan, 54, 703-704.

Smith, R. (2000). The Influence of Teacher Background on the Inclusion of Multicultural Education: A Case Study of Two Contrasts. The Urban Review, 32(2), 155-178.

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Sumison, J. (2000). Oppositional Discourses: deconstructing responses to investigations of male early childhood educators. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 1(3), 259-275.

Sumison, J. (2000). Motivations for the career choice of preservice teachers in New South Wales, Australia and Ontario, Canada, American Educational Research Association. New Orleans, LA.

Summerhill, A., Matranga, M., Peltier, G., & Hill, G. (1998). High school seniors’ perceptions of a teaching career. Journal of Teacher Education, 49, 228-234.

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Thornton, M. a. B., Patricia. (2000). Primary School Teachers’ Careers in England and Wales: the relationship between gender, role, position and promotion aspirations. Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 8(2), 187-206.

Thornton, M. a. B., Patricia. (2006). Missing Men in Education. Sterling: Trentham Books.

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Tosh, J. (2005). Manliness and Masculinities in Nineteenth Century Britain. Harlow: Pearson.

Tsouroufli, M. (2002). Gender and Teachers’ Practice in a Secondary School in Greece. Gender and Education, 14(2), 135-147.

Tyre, P. (2008). The Trouble with Boys: A Surprising Report Card on Our Sons, Their Problems at School, and What Parents and Educators Must Do. New York: Crown Publishers.

Usdan, M. (2001). Leadership for Student Learning: Restructuring School District Leadership. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership.

Vandenbroeck, M., and Peeters, Jan (2008). Gender and professionalism: a critical analysis of overt and covert curricula. Early Child Development and Care, 178(7 & 8), 703 – 715.

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Wallace, M. L. (1999). Beyond Love and Battle: Practicing Feminist Pedagogy. Feminist Teacher, 12(3), 184-195.

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Walling, D. R. (1998). Recruiting Men and Minorities into Teaching: Phi Delta Kappa.

Warren, S. (2003). Is That an Action Man in There? Masculinity as an Imaginative Act of Self-Creation. Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education, 24(1), 3-18.

Weaver-Hightower, M. (2003). The “Boy Turn” in Research on Gender and Education. Review of Educational Research, 73(4), 471-498.

Weaver-Hightower, M. B. (2003). Crossing the divide: Bridgning the disjunctures between theoretically orinted and practice-oriented literature about masculinity and boys at school. Gender and Education, 15(4), 407-423.

Weaver-Hightower, M. B. (2008). Inventing the “All-American Boy”: A Case Study of the Capture of Boys’ Issues By Conservative Groups. Men and Masculinities, 10, 267-296.

Wedgwood, N. (2005). Just one of the boys? A life history case study of a male physical education teacher. Gender and Education, 17(2), 189-201.

Wiegman, R. (2002). Unmaking: Men and Masculinity in Feminist Theory. In J. K. Gardiner (Ed.), Masculinity Studies and Feminist Theory. New York: Comumbia University Press.

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Yates, L. (2000). The “Facts of the Case”: Gender Equity for Boys as a Public Policy Issue. In N. Lesko (Ed.), Masculinities at School (pp. 305-323). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Yee, A. H. (1973). Are Schools a Feminized Society? Educational Leadership, 31(2), 128-133.

Zittleman, K., and Sadker, David. (2002). The Unfinished Gender Revolution. Educational Leadership, Dec./Jan.(59-63).

Zyngier, D. (2009). Doing it to (for) boys (again): do we really need more books tellins us there is a problem with boys’ underachievement in education? Gender & Education, 21(1), 111-118.


Readings on Boys, Masculinities, and Role Models

Allen, A. (1990) ‘On being a role model’, Berkeley women’s law journal, 22: 22-42.

Ashley, M. (2003) ‘Primary school boys’ identity formation and the male role model: an exploration of sexual identity and gender identity in the UK through attachment theory’, Sex Education, Vol. 3, No. 3: 257-270.

Balchin, T. (2002) ‘Male teachers in primary education’, Forum, vol. 44, no. 1: 27-33.

Berrill, D. and Martino, W. (2002) ‘Paedophiles and deviants: exploring issues of sexuality, masculinity and normalisation in male teacher candidates’ lives’ in R. Kissen (ed.) Waiting for Benjamin: sexuality, curriculum and schooling. Colorado: Rowan and Littlefield.

Bricheno, P. and Thornton, M. (2007) ‘Role model, hero or champion? Children’s views concerning role models’, Educational Research, Vol. 49, No. 4: 383-396.

Burn, E. (2002) ‘Do boys need male primary teachers as positive role models’, Forum, vol. 44, no. 1: 34-40

Carrington, B., Francis, B., Merryn Hutchings, Christine, S., Barbara, R. and Hall, I. (2007) ‘Does the gender of the teacher really matter? Seven- to eight-year olds’ accounts of their interactions with their teachers’, Educational studies, vol.33, no. 4: 397-413.

Carrington, B. and Skelton, C. (2003) ‘Re-thinking ‘role models’: equal opportunities in teacher recruitment in England and Wales’, Journal of Education Policy, Vol. 18, No. 3: 253-265.

Carrington, B., Tymms, P. and Merrell, C. (2005) ‘Forget gender: whether a teacher is male or female doesn’t matter’, Teacher: the national education magazine. December.

Carrington, B., Tymms, P. and Merrell, C. (2008) ‘Role models, school improvement and the ‘gender gap’ – do men bring out the best in boys and women the best in girls?’, British Educational Research Journal, Vol. 34, No. 3: 315-327.

Connell, R.W. (1996) ‘Teaching the boys: new research on masculinity, and gender strategies for schools, Teachers College record, vol. 98, no. 2: 206-235.

Cushman, P. (2005) ‘Let’s hear it for the males: Issues facing male primary school teachers’, Teaching and teacher education, vol. 21: 227-240.

Cushman, P. (2008) ‘So what exactly do you want? What principals mean when they say ‘male role models’, Gender and Education, vol. 20, no,2: 123-136.

Dryler, H. (1998) ‘Parental role models, gender and educational choice’, The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 49, No. 3: 375-398.

Ehrenberg, R., Goldhaber, D. and Brewer, D. (1995) ‘Do teachers’ race, gender and ethnicity matter? Evidence from the national educational longitudinal study of 1988′, Industrial and labour relations review, vol. 48, no. 3: 547-?.
Evans, M. (1992) ‘An estimate of race and gender role-model effects in teaching high school’, Journal of economic education, Summer: 209-217.

Francis, B. and Skelton, C. (2001) ‘Men teachers and the construction of heterosexual masculinity in the classroom’, Sex Education, Vol. 1, No. 1: 9-21.

Francis, B., Skelton, C., Carrington, B., Hutchings, M., Read, B. and Hall, I. (2008) ‘A perfect match? Pupils’ and teachers’ views of the impact of matching educators and learners by gender’, Research papers in education, Vol. 23, No. 1: 21-36.

Frank, B., Kehler, M., Lovell, T. and Davison, K. (2003) ‘A tangle of trouble: boys, masculinity and schooling – future directions’, Educational Review, vol. 55, no, 2: 119-133.

Hutchings, M., Carrington, B., Francis, B., Skelton, C., Read, B. and Hall, I. (2008) ‘Nice and kind, smart and funny: what children like and want to emulate in their teachers’, Oxford review of education, Vol. 34, No.2: 135-157.

Jackson, C. (2002) ‘Can single-sex classes in co-educational schools enhance the learning experiences of girls and/or boys? An exploration of pupils’ perceptions’, British educational research journal, vol. 28, no. 1: 37-48.

Jones, D. (2003) ‘The right kind of man: the ambiguities of regendering the early years school environment – the case of England and Wales’, Early child development and care Vol. 173, I. 6: 565-575.

Jones, D. (2007) ‘Millennium man: constructing identities of male teachers in early years contexts’, Educational Review, vol. 59, no. 2: 179-194.

King, J. (2004) ‘The (im)possibility of gay teachers for young children. Theory into practice, vol. 43, no.2: 122-127.

King, J. (2009) What can he want? Male teachers, young children and teaching desire in Martino, W. et al. The problem with boys: beyond the backlash.  New York: Routledge: 242-261.

Lahelma, E. (2000) ‘Lack of male teachers: a problem for students or teachers?’, Pedagogy, culture and society, Vol. 8, No. 2:172-186.

Martin, A., Marsh, H. (2005) ‘Motivating boys and motivating girls: does teacher gender really make a difference’, Australian journal of education, vol. 49, no. 3: 320-334.

Martino, W. (2008) ‘Beyond male role models: interrogating the role of male teachers in boys’ education in W. Martino, M. Kehler and M Weaver-Hightower (eds.) Boys Education: beyond the backlash.

Martino, W. (2008) ‘Male teachers as role models: addressing issues of masculinity, pedagogy and the re-masculinisation of schooling’, Curriculum Inquiry, Vol. 38, No. 2: 189-222.

Martino, W. and Berrill, D. (2003) ‘Boys, schooling and masculinities: interrogating the ‘right’ way to educate boys’, Educational Review, vol. 55, no.2: 99-117.

Martino, W. and Kehler, M. (2006) ‘Male teachers and the ‘boy problem’: an issue of recuperative masculinity politics’, McGill Journal of Education, Vol. 41, No. 2: 113-130.

Martino, W. and Frank. B. (2006) ‘The tyranny of surveillance: male teachers and the policing of masculinities in a single sex school’, Gender and Education, vol. 18, no. 1: 17-33.

Mills, M., Haase, M. and Charlton, E. (2008) ‘Being the ‘right kind of male teacher: the disciplining of John’, Pedagogy, culture and society, vol. 16, no.1: 71-84.

Mills, M., Martino, W. and Lingard, B. (2004) ‘Attracting, recruiting and retaining male teachers. Policy issues in the male teacher debate’, British Journal of the sociology of education, vol. 25, no. 3: 355-369.

Ni Bhroimeil, U. (2006) ‘Sending gossons to be made oul’ mollies of’ Rule 127 (b) and the feminisation of teaching in Ireland, Irish Educational Studies, Vol. 25, no. 1: 35-51.

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